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The strains isolated were screened for hemolytic activity and for the presence of the The seawater samples and sediments were collected at a depth of 50 and 10–20 cm, respectively, by aseptic techniques.
Of the 300 total samples, 150 seawater and 150 sediment samples were collected from seven different sites in the Caspian Sea in April, May, June, July, and August (Fig.
The results of this study demonstrated the presence of genes, respectively.
However, only bacteria producing virulence factors, i.e., TDH and/or TRH, are considered to be pathogenic and can cause acute gastroenteritis (or, more rarely, invasive septicemia) (Bisha et al. TDH is capable of producing β hemolysis on Wagatsuma agar which is called Kanagawa phenomenon (KP).
Salinity was highest in summer (19 ppt), whereas the minimum levels were recorded during the spring (2 ppt).
The average salinity was 10.5 ppt during the sampling period.
Of the 62 strains isolated, 26 (8.3 %) were obtained from seawater samples and 36 (12 %) from sediments.Only two of the 62 strains (2.53 %) amplified the 250-bp in 20.3 % of the seawater and sediment samples analyzed.This study was the first research to investigate the isolation and distribution of this pathogen in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. () have reported that of the 144 strains isolated, 35 % was obtained from seawater samples and 16 % from sediment.The green or blue-green colonies were presumptively selected as colonies and transferred to trypticase soy agar plate containing 3 % Na Cl.After incubation at 37 °C for 24 h, the isolates were tested using conventional bacterial methods, including Gram's staining, culture sulfide indole motility and triple sugar iron tests media, cytochrome oxidase activity tests, lysine iron agar tests, urea tests, and tests for arabinose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, and sucrose fermentation (Colakoglu et al. Positive reactions were recorded as a zone of β hemolysis surrounding the spot of growth on the human blood plate.
The reactions were performed as follows: initial denaturation at 94 °C for 1 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 1 min, annealing at 55 °C for 1 min, extension at 72 °C for 1 min, and a final extension at 72 °C for 7 min.