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Bruni and later historians argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarch's time, and therefore added a third period to Petrarch's two.The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". Depending on the context, events such as Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used.
The need for revenue led to increased taxes and a decline in numbers of the curial, or landowning, class, and decreasing numbers of them willing to shoulder the burdens of holding office in their native towns.
Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and later "Low" period.
English-speaking historians, following their German counterparts, generally subdivide the Middle Ages into three intervals: "Early", "High", and "Late".
Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, and peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.
Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
364–378) to settle in the Roman province of Thracia in the Balkans.